Disasters have enormous impact on development. Pakistan, in the past sixty years has suffered severe losses on account of disasters. This related, inter-alia, to human life, physical social infrastructure and natural environment. Full appreciation of the underlying causes and consequences of these incidents are not fully mainstreamed into the policies, programmes, procedures and practices, overseen and controlled by the public and private sector.
NDMA is supporting the Ministry of Industries and Production, Government of Pakistan in establishing policy, legal and institutional arrangements for Disasters Risk Management. The purpose of UNDP support is to develop and strengthen the capacity of the public/private sector for adapting strategies for reducing threats of disasters and minimizing the impact of disasters upon communities.
The current development practice of various Public/Private sector organizations is not fully considerate about risk posed by natural and human induced hazards. Therefore, generally the infrastructure are built in locations that are prone to naturals hazards e.g. earthquake flood, cyclones and landslides & human induces hazards like urban fires and technological accidents.
To address the above mentioned issues, a Tannery Zone being established by Sialkot Tannery Association Guarantee Limited through Sialkot Chamber of Commerce and Industry, has been selected on the request of SCCI, to be developed as a Demo Model Project for demonstrating that elements of Risk reduction, has been fully incorporated in the planning, design and implementation stages.
Sialkot is known as an export city of Pakistan with more than one thousand SMEs, comprising of leather and leather garments, leather gloves, sports goods, surgical, textile, hosiery, cutlery, sanitary ware, decorative articles, judo karate articles, track suits, foot wear, etc.
Most of the industries consume several kinds of chemicals which are hazardous in nature. Similarly various manufacturing processes are also hazardous operations in nature and as such it is quite imperative that the industrialist, middle level technical personnels, workers and management officials may be apprised about the benefits of the mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in the various activities of the development and production cycle so that the industry could adopt a proactive approach and undertake disaster risk reduction more seriously and could adopt preventive and mitigation measures, in addition to undertaking other preparedness activities.
The tanning industry consumes various industrial chemicals like sodium sulphide, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, basic chromium sulphate, acetone, pigments, varnishes, thinners, dyes, oils and various other chemicals as mentioned above which are carcinogenic in nature. About 65-70% of the chemicals utilized in the leather tanning are drained away and hardly 30% of the chemicals are taken up by the leather with the result that the effluent coming out of the tannery, processing 1 Ton of hide/skin per day using a volume of 35000-40000 litters of waters, contains TDS ranging from 25000-50000 ppm with the result that it renders the water unfit for human consumption in addition to adversely affecting the flora, fauna and the aquatic life plus being a cause of animal diseases.
At present there is no arrangement for the treatment of the discharged effluent. The tannery wastewater / effluent either collect in ponds around the factories or discharged into unlined drains. Solids & sludge accumulates in these drains causing, blockage & localized flooding of adjacent agricultural land. The toxic tanning effluents, spread on the agricultural lands especially during heavy rains, and is a source of various diseases to animals and human beings, rendering the drinking water unfit for human consumption.
Objectives of the Consultancy:
To control the indiscriminate discharge of polluted waste water generated from the leather processing units in the proposed at Tannery Zone Sialkot, provide adequate infrastructure facilities in the proposed tannery zone ensuring environmentally sustainable social and economic development of the area. The main objective is to prepare the outline design of the infrastructure and other facilities like roads, sewerage system and other infrastructure for the project
The Expert shall study the physical layout plan of the tannery zone, data/documents available with the meteorological government departments pertaining to met data, survey drawings and the geo-technical report for the site. The Expert shall assess the volume of traffic, solid wastes, effluent, sewerage, drainage and power supplies of the industries as well as facilities proposed; and prepare the outline design of the following:
· Roads network and pavements
· Water Supply network
· Sewerage system
· Storm Water Drainage System
· Effluent Collection Channels network
· Waste Water Treatment Facility
· Fire-fighting System
· External Electrification System/Street Lighting
· Hard and soft Landscape
· Common Facilities/buildings
The expert would develop conceptual technical design and outlay of the above and incorporate it in the structural plan keeping in view the international standards and practices and particular focus would be to reduce the disasters. The expert would work in close collaboration with other consultants specific to other areas of concern.
1. Report on assessment of requirements of roads & pavements, water, effluent discharge system, waste water treatment facility, sewerage, fire fighting system, power supply system
2. Outline design of the infrastructure requirements for the items stated above and incorporation on Project structural plan. Designing and implementation stage with specific reference to safety of the project and adherence to standards for safety of infrastructure and other facilities proposed from calamities and disasters.
N.B. The Draft Feasibility report would be presented and discussed in a workshop with stakeholders at Sialkot and would be there upon finalised by the expert incorporating the suggestions/improvements thereof.