Disasters have enormous impact on development. Pakistan, in the past sixty years has suffered severe losses on account of disasters. This related, inter-alia, to human life, physical social infrastructure and natural environment. Full appreciation of the underlying causes and consequences of these incidents are not fully mainstreamed into the policies, programmes, procedures and practices, overseen and controlled by the public and private sector.
NDMA is supporting the Ministry of Industries and Production, Government of Pakistan in establishing policy, legal and institutional arrangements for Disasters Risk Management. The purpose of UNDP support is to develop and strengthen the capacity of the public/private sector for adapting strategies for reducing threats of disasters and minimizing the impact of disasters upon communities.
The current development practice of various Public/Private sector organizations is not fully considerate about risk posed by natural and human induced hazards. Therefore, generally the infrastructures are built in locations that are prone to naturals hazards e.g. earthquake flood, cyclones and landslides & human induced hazards like urban fires and technological accidents.
To address the above mentioned issues, a Tannery Zone being established by Sialkot Tannery Association Guarantee Limited through Sialkot Chamber of Commerce and Industry, has been selected on the request of SCCI, to be developed as a Demo Model Project for demonstrating that elements of Risk reduction, has been fully incorporated in the planning, design and implementation stages so that sustainable economic and social development could be achieved by minimizing shocks from disasters.
Sialkot is known as an export city of Pakistan with more than one thousand SMEs, comprising of leather and leather garments, leather gloves, sports goods, surgical, textile, hosiery, cutlery, sanitary ware, decorative articles, judo karate articles, track suits, foot wear, etc.
Most of the industries consume several kinds of chemicals which are hazardous in nature. Similarly various manufacturing processes are also hazardous operations in nature and as such it is quite imperative that the industrialist, middle level technical personnels, workers and management officials may be apprised about the benefits of the mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in various activities of development and production cycle so that the industry could adopt a proactive approach and undertake disaster risk reduction more seriously and could adopt preventive and mitigation measures, in addition to undertaking other preparedness activities.
The tanning industry consumes various industrial chemicals like sodium sulphide, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, basic chromium sulphate, acetone, pigments, varnishes, thinners, dyes, oils and various other chemicals as mentioned above which are carcinogenic in nature. About 65-70% of the chemicals utilized in the leather tanning are drained away and hardly 30% of the chemicals are taken up by the leather with the result that the effluent coming out of the tannery processing 1 Ton of hide/skin per day using a volume of 35000-40000 litters of waters contains TDS ranging from 25000-50000 ppm with the result that it renders the water unfit for human consumption in addition to adversely affecting the flora, fauna and the aquatic life in plus to being a cause of animal diseases.
At present there is no arrangement for the treatment of the discharged effluent. The tannery wastewater / effluent either collect in ponds around the factories or discharged into unlined drains. Solids & sludge accumulates in these drains causing, blockage & localized flooding of adjacent agricultural land. The toxic tanning effluents, spread on the agricultural lands especially during heavy rains, and is a source of various diseases to animals and human beings, rendering the drinking water unfit for human consumption.
Objectives of the Consultancy:
To minimize hazards and to control the indiscriminate discharge of potentially harmful solid waste and polluted waste water generated from the leather processing units in the proposed at Tannery Zone Sialkot, thus ensuring environmentally sustainable social and economic development of the area.
The main objective is to review the existing planning structure and other studies and documents, reports either generated by SCCI/STAGL like Geotechnical Investigation report and Topographic Survey or other reports available with various government functionaries regarding water management, floods and rainfalls etc. and to collect and update data with regard to the number of tanneries, their approximate production, their location and pattern of production. The expert would develop liaison with tanning community, SCCI, government functionaries and would hold meetings with the stakeholders in different clusters of Tannery Community at Sialkot thereby perusing them for shifting and joining the Tannery Zone. The cluster development specialist would assess the estimated anticipated would be production capacity to be created by each existing cluster of Tannery and would assess their capacity building (Training) requirements
The cluster development specialist would also work in close cooperation and coordination of Sialkot Tannery Guarantee Limited as well as physical planning expert and waste treatment facility expert for acting as a bridge in facilitating the following:
1. Cleaner Production and Environmental Management
2. Institutional Capacity-Building for SME Development
3. Metrology, Standardization, Testing, Quality Assurance and Continuous Improvement
4. Industrial Investment Promotion and Technology Transfer
1. Report on networking of different leather clusters in Sialkot and techniques of cleaner production/waste minimization and environmental management techniques leading to minimizing of hazards, ultimately leading to the estimation of pollution load.
2. Report on provision of Metrology, Standardization, Testing, Quality, Assurance and Continuous Improvement requirements thus facilitating Disaster Risk Reduction and Industrial Investment Promotion and Technology Transfer Activities.