The Education Governance Study is part of the Education Joint Program by the UN partner agencies convened by UNESCO and supported by UNDP, UNICEF and WFP. The study will be conducted by the UNDP Project operating in Balochistan by the name of “Assistance to Governance Reforms and Practices in Balochistan”. The Government of Balochistan, Planning and Development Department launched AGRPB Project in the province with the technical assistance of United Nations Development Program to improve public services delivery. The project aims at i) strengthening and alignment of provincial and local government institutions to implement devolution and related governance reform; ii) improvement in access to information for effective decision making, planning and monitoring at provincial and local government levels; and iii) strengthening of participatory local governance mechanisms.
To improve governance in the education sector the capacities of the Federal, Provincial and District Governments needs to be assessed and enhanced to design and implement improved educational governance practices and tools. To achieve the task the situation analysis and system review of existing educational governance and practices at all levels has to be probed.
UNDP and UNESCO therefore seeks to conduct an analytical study to map the education governance structure at the provincial and district level and to critically explore the linkages with federal government, identify gaps , conduct analysis of service delivery of education across the multi tiered education governance system at the interface of schools. The area for this study is Balochistan. The selection of Balochistan for the purpose of this study is based on the twin criterion of the province being the most underdeveloped and least urbanized area of Pakistan.
Objectives of the Analytical Study:
1. Map and analyze the Education Governance Structure across the tiers of Government and identify gaps.
2. Review Policies, Processes and Procedures of decision making across the governance tiers, analyze service delivery patterns, quality and standardization of education and accountability mechanisms (if any) at Provincial, District and School level.
3. Review procedures and practices on procurement, finance and expenditure, including budget tracking and sector auditing, existing incentive system and proposal for improvement.
4. Conduct a survey to elaborate demand side issues in education governance
5. Proffer Recommendations for improvement of education governance in line with the standards set by MDGs.
Spectrum of Analysis and Proposed Methodology:
The Proposed study will be undertaken by conceptualizing two streams of Supply side and Demand side of Educations Governance. A comparative analysis of these two streams will identify the gaps. Gender will be a cross cutting theme of both streams. The study will be conducted across levels of analysis corresponding to tiers of governance and service delivery function down to the school level.
The First Stream; The Supply Side:
The First Level of Analysis; Federal Government: It is proposed that the first level of analysis be the Federal Government. It is beyond the scope of this assignment to delve in the Federal Education Policy but it is crucial to analyze, albeit briefly the criteria for provincial allocable under NFC award in terms of education allocable. The reason for inserting the federal level is to comprehend the processes of resource allocation for education under devolved structure and keeping in view that provinces themselves have meager resource generation potential. This analysis will help determine the dynamics of supply of education services.
Methodology: The proposed methodology is to conduct limited/semi structured interviews with Ministry of Finance and Provincial Finance Department and desk review of financial allocation processes and patterns over the last NFC award.
The Second Level of Analysis; Provincial Government: The second level of analysis will be the provincial government. It is proposed that three key departments may be analyzed to comprehend the provincial decision making processes and procedures especially the district wise resource allocation and administrative arrangements vis-à-vis education. The four key departments are; Education Department, Finance Department (Budget Wing), P&D Department and Social Welfare Department
Methodology: The proposed methodology is to conduct interviews with key officers and review available policy, rules of business and other documents. Consultative workshop or a Focused Group Discussion with the officials of Provincial Education Department, EDO Education, Organizations and NGOs operating in the education sector in Balochistan.
The Third Level of Analysis: The District: The district level analysis will be conducted for key governance processes of administration, budgeting, training and monitoring as well as accountability. The impact of Devolution on Education Governance at District Level and the operational gaps to improve Education governance at the grass root level would be identified.
Methodology: The proposed methodology is to conduct interviews with DCOs, EDO Education, EDO (F&P) etc. The track, trajectory and utilization of education development spending will also be analyzed to ascertain patterns and to probe into the decision making process for Education and the impact of Devolution on the whole governance process.
The Fourth Level of Analysis: The Tehsil: The tehsil as a unit of decision making in terms of service delivery and resource allocation vis-à-vis education will be examined. The linkages with district and with Union Council will also be analyzed. The gaps both in terms of processes, human resource capacity and equipment would be analyzed at Tehsil and School Zone level (Circle level in case of Balochistan).
Methodology: The proposed methodology is to conduct interviews with key officers including DDO Education, Learning Coordinators / Monitoring Officers and CSOs operating at the village level and examine records for allocation patterns etc.
The Fifth Level of Analysis; the School: It is imperative to engage at the level of the schools, the final object of the study. The administrative arrangement at schools, the role of PTAs, the quality and accountability issues and resource allocation all need to examined to understand the problems in education governance.
Methodology: Interviews with Head Masters, teachers, members of Parent-Teachers associations (PTA), students, Local councilors etc.
The Second Stream; the Demand Side:
It is proposed that a rapid assessment survey may be conducted to ascertain the problems of the demand side with a user’s perspective. The Survey will be conducted by using questionnaire methodology. Survey teams will comprise of both men and women team members. The survey will be conducted in at least two project districts one from North and one from South Balochistan through local youth of the districts.
The findings from these two streams will converge in formulating a framework of issues pertaining to education governance, degree of devolution in education governance, patterns of resource allocation, major gaps in the operations of the school administration. The issues related to decision making and the gaps in supply and demand of education.
Duties and Responsibilities
Consultant(s) would focus on the following key work tasks:
- To develop and submit a work plan highlighting the details of activities for undertaking the assignment with appropriate timelines for the approval of the project management.
- To conduct various meetings with Concerned Government Officials, Organizational heads, representatives of CSOs at Provincial and District level.
- To review and consult the relevant documents including rules of business, service rules, notifications and any other instructions issued by the Provincial Government & District Government in the Project Districts.
- To conduct a detailed survey from the beneficiaries of the Education System on Education Governance by using Questionnaire methodology in at least two Project districts in Balochistan one in South and one in North Balochistan.
- To work in coordination with Policy & Planning Unit of Education Department, Government of Balochistan.
- To conduct Focus Group Discussion / Workshop with the stakeholders on Education Governance at Quetta and two project districts one in North of Balochistan and the other in South of the Province.
- Presentation of the Draft Report to the Education Department and UNDP Partners at Quetta and would share the findings with the UNDP Peers.
- The inputs/recommendations of the consultative meeting with the Education Department and UNDP Peers will be made part of the assessment study report.
- Work Plan
- Draft Study Report
- Presentation on Findings of the Study.
- Final Study Report.
The payment shall be made upon completion of the following milestones.
30% of the total amount shall be paid upon completion and duly approval of NPM, the submission of work plan highlighting the details of activities.
30% of the total amount shall be paid upon completion and duly approval of NPM, submission of draft capacity assessment report and capacity development plan.
40% of the total amount shall be paid upon completion and duly approval of NPM, submission of final reports and presentation to be delivered to the Education Department & UNDP Partners under Education Joint Program.
Moreover, the Consultant would be paid the Air Fare and provided Logistic support as per the approved work plan by AGRPB Project. However, no daily subsistence allowance would be given to the consultant while serving at the duty station Quetta and his home station.