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Consultant - “Climate Change Impacts on Rod Kohi

Job Category:
Career Level:
Job Type:
Full Time
Agency / Project:
Posted On:
25 February, 2010
Last Date to apply:
11 March, 2010
Experience in years
2 to 4

He/she should have at least 10 – 15 years working experience. The consultant should have sufficient knowledge of Rod Kohi system, including issues of climate change and its vulnerabilities in Pakistan.


I. Background

Pakistan covers 79.61 million hectares of land, of which about 40% is suitable for agriculture and forestry related activities. Out of total cultivated area of about 21.1 Mha, 16.2 Mha are irrigated, while remaining 4.9 Mha are rainfed agriculture. There are about 14 major hill torrents in Pakistan with an average annual run-off of 12.15 MAF.  These hill torrents drain about 55% of the total area of the Pakistan (NESPAK 1995). The area commanded by hill torrents has been estimated as 2.34 Mha with an estimated catchments area of about 40.12 Mha.

Rod Kohi (Hill Torrent-Spate) is a system of irrigation in which run-off water from flash floods and mountain springs is diverted by constructing small dams (bunds), embankments, and channels and is used for irrigating fields located in the foot hill plains. It provides water for local farming system, forestry, and rangelands, as well as drinking water supplies—either directly or through re-charge of shallow aquifers. The water come from hills through natural water channels called as “Rods”. These main channels then branch of into sub-channels, which in turn feed agriculture fields. In fact, the Rod Kohi Irrigation System in Pakistan is the second largest system after the Indus Basin Irrigated System, providing food and livelihoods to millions of rural poor. According to water experts this system has enormous potential. Currently, the major part of hill-torrent water (about 50 %) goes wasted because of insufficient hill torrent management facilities. Proper management of hill torrents can significantly enhance agricultural production and ensure food security in Pakistan. The proper use of technologies and re-vitalizing Rod Kohi management regimes, the livelihoods of people living in Rod Kohi areas could be improved. Therefore, Rod Kohi Irrigation System should be encouraged since it is not only low cost, environmentally sustainable, and people oriented, but also it helps in preventing land degradation and desertification. It is practiced in four provinces of Pakistan. In Balochistan and Sindh provinces it is called “Sailaba” irrigation. Despite its potential, Rod Kohi System has remained the most neglected and underdeveloped irrigation system in Pakistan mainly because of low Government priority, poor resources of Rod Kohi farmers, ignorance of farmers to improve irrigation practices, unpredictable torrential rains, excessively high flows, non-existence of control structures, and lack of scientific investigations for the improvement of this traditional irrigation system. Presently, this unique system is threatened from mismanagement and effects of climate change, as it is mainly dependent on rain water.

There have been significant climatic changes occurring in South-Asia due to global warming. Comparing to other countries, Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climatic variability and its impact on land resources. Water availability is already a serious concern in many part of the country, especially in Rod Kohi areas.  Climate change has already caused decline in precipitation in the country by 10-15 % in the arid and hyper-arid regions over the last 30-40 years. Furthermore, climatic changes increase the vulnerability to drought and flash floods in the area. These natural calamities often pose serious threats to local food production and trigger land degradation and desertification. Therefore, integrated management of Rod Kohi Irrigation System for adapting to climate change impacts has become imperative if Pakistan has to maintain its economic growth and over-come food security concerns. In order to achieve this issue, a “National Strategy and Action Plan” for promoting integrated management of Rod Kohi Irrigation System would be needed. Such a strategy could contribute and sustain socio-economic development and conservation of natural resources.

Keeping in view the importance of Rod Kohi Irrigation System and its role in combating desertification, the SLMP intends to launch a study to document the impact of climate change on Rod Kohi Irrigation System and develop a strategy and action plan for promoting climate change adaptation measures in Rod Kohi Areas. This would help in exploring and understanding dynamics of climate change and its affects on Rod Kohi Irrigation System.

II. Study Objectives

The principal objective of the study is to investigate climate change impacts on the Rod Kohi System, prepare a strategy and an action plan for adaption to climate change factors. The study will help in identifying major adaptation measures to minimize impacts of climate change, especially for land use and water management practices under the Rod Kohi System.

The specific objectives of the study are to:

1. Assess the magnitude and variability of major climatic parameters in Rod Kohi areas,
2. Investigate the relative effects of these parameters on water flows (Rod) and management of Rod Kohi irrigation system,
3. Document land use changes taking place in the Rod Kohi Region due to changes in availability Rod Kohi water,
4. Assess “vulnerability” of agriculture, livestock and forestry (including rangelands) sectors and associated livelihoods due to climate change impacts on Rod Kohi System, and
5. Prepare a draft strategy and action plan for undertaking adaptation measures to address climate change impacts on the Rod Kohi System and promote sustainable management of land resources in the region.

III. Reporting Responsibilities
Under overall direction and guidance of the National Project Coordinator (NPC), SLMP the consultant will directly report to the Coordinator-Capacity Building, SLMP based at National Coordination Unit (NCU), SLMP, Islamabad.

IV. Study Area

The study will be based on key Rod Kohi dependent areas in Pakistan, particularly focusing on main command areas of Rod Kohi Irrigation System.

V. Time Frame and Duration

The total duration of the assignment will be three months, while the time frame for the assignment is to be mutually agreed between the consultant and the SLMP.

Job Description:

The specific tasks for the assignment are as under:

Task I:  Assessment of magnitude and variability in major climatic parameters

This task includes:

 development of a data-set based on the following climatic parameters covering at least last 10 years, including mean temperature, mean precipitation and intensity of floods and droughts in Rod Kohi Region.
 Analysis of changes taken place in these parameters over this period and provide a graphic presentation of this analysis.

Task II: Examining effects of climatic parameters on water flows and management of Rod Kohi System

 Study Hill torrent (water flow) data of both perennial flow (if any)  and flash floods for at least last 10 years,
 Document changes in availability of hill torrent due to climate change effects,
 Study changes in traditional management practices of Rod Kohi Irrigation System both at off and on-farm levels due to changes in availability of hill torrent. 

Task III: Documentation of Land Use Changes in Rod Kohi Region

This task will include documentation changes in land use practices, including

 Changes in area under cultivation,
 Changes in forest cover and rangelands,
 Changes in livestock sector,
 Changes in human settlements (if any).

 Task IV: Assessment of “vulnerability” of agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors
 Provide vulnerability assessment of local production systems, especially of agriculture and livestock sectors,
 Assessment vulnerability of droughts and flash floods in Rod Kohi Region.
 Assess  the qualitative and quantitative changes in range conditions and forest cover due to climatic vulnerability

Task V:  Preparation of draft strategy and action plan for undertaking adaptation measures

The draft strategy may include:

 A brief summary of issues and trends in management of Rod Kohi irrigation system
 Provide an inventory of major land resources, including demarcation of major Rod Kohi areas on topographic maps,
 Describe a vision statement, goal, and strategic objectives of the strategy focusing on management different sectors under the Rod Kohi System,  and
 Develop an action plan to for the strategic objective focusing on climate change adaptation measures under each sector. The action plan may include:

o Short and long term management options under water, agriculture, livestock and forestry sectors for the sustainable management of Rod Kohi regimes,
o Recommend policy measures and programmes for implementation of the action plan based on existing policies and regulations,
o  Indentify key stakeholders of Rod Kohi Irrigation system and preparation of stakeholders participation plan, particularly Rod Kohi communities in effective management of the system,
o Propose an effective mechanism of coordination for implementation of adaptation measures,
o Propose measures for capacity building of stakeholders in management of Rod Kohi System.


I. Outputs/Deliverables
Deliverables include:
 A brief outline (Table of Contents), methodology and work plan (including field visit schedule) to accomplish the tasks listed above within 2 weeks after signing of the contract,
 An interim report based Tasks I – IV above within two month,
 First draft of the study report, including draft strategy and action plan for adaptation measures  at the end of 3rd month for seeking comments/feedback from the SLMP Team and other technical experts,
 Two (2) hard copies and a soft copy (on CD) of the final study report after incorporating comments from the SLMP and technical experts at the end of 4th month.

II. Payment Schedule

The assignment is required to be completed within the period indicated above. The project will make payments subject to the satisfactory approval of the deliverables. Delivery of outputs and payment schedule will be as under:
i. 1st installment (10 %) on submission of methodology and workplan for completion of the assignment including table of contents of the final report.
ii. 2nd installment (20%) on submission of First Draft Report based on the outputs mentioned and the report outlines (table of contents) agreed by the project.
iii. 3rd installment (20%) after submission and approval of 2nd Draft Report.
iv. 4th installment (20%) after holding national validation workshop and preparation of report.
v. 5th installment (30%) subject to the acceptance of the final report.

III. Requirements for Submission of Brief Proposals/Concept Note

The individual consultants will be required to submit their CVs along with a 3-4 pages concept note covering relevant experience, approach/proposed methodology for the study and indicative amount of the consultancy fee in lump-sum, including travel expenses (if involved) for the assignment.


Must Degree Degree Level Country Description
YesAdvance University DegreeMasters DegreeThe national consultant should posses an advance degree (preferably Ph.D.) in the field of natural sciences or related sector, including forestry, agriculture, livestock, and water management or a subject closely related to sustainable land management.

Must Title Level Description
YesLanguage & Report Writing Excellent  He/she should be fluent in English with excellent writing and verbal communication skills. He/she should have good understanding of the international/regional/national/local issues relevant to the subject.