Terms of Reference
Job Title: Gender Based Violence, HIV/AIDS & Drug Use: Consultant
Total Position(s): 1
Job Type: IC
Job Location: Islamabad
Minimum Education: Masters Degree
Degree Title: Sociology, Anthropology, Public Health or Epidemiology
Minimum Experience: 6-7 years
Career Level: Mid-Level
Organizational Unit: UNODC
Duration: 30 days ( over a period of 2 months)
Posted On: 12 October 2011
Apply By: 19 October 2011
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has been given the responsibility to lead the UNAIDS response to HIV among injecting drug users , in prison settings and other vulnerable populations. While mainstreaming HIV/AIDS into its activities globally , regionally and at the country levels , UNODC, in doing so is helping civil society organizations to develop and implement comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention and care programmes . Under the larger framework of HIV/AIDS, UNODC also works to engender service provision. UNODC’s gender and HIV work is not only to ensure equitable access to HIV and AIDS prevention but to also introduce comprehensive interventions to address gender-based violence among vulnerable populations including the spouses of male drug users/injecting drug users.
To date there are no specific programme and policies , particularly in the field of drug-related HIV that directly address gender based violence. There are no significant programmes that address male responsibility to protect their spouses/partners, they do not confront gender inequalities that increase women’s vulnerabilities as they tend to focus more on self-protection. Community interventions must seek to address the underlying issues such as GBV, which increase the risk of women and girls to HIV/AIDS.
The national drug survey in 2006 estimated 628,000 drug users throughout the country of Pakistan . Of this, approximately 428,000 were oral opioid users and the remaining 125,000 were injecting drug users. in Pakistan, Injecting drug users continue to remain at the forefront of the high risk groups. At present, Pakistan is a concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemic country where WHO estimates approximately 96,000 HIV positive cases. Excessive sharing of injecting paraphernalia and sexual networking with bridging populations such as sex workers, rapidly increases the potential for an HIV epidemic. Approximately 50% of these IDUs are reported to be married (2008) , further placing the spouses and alternatively families of DUs /IDUs at a great risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS, STIs and associated blood borne diseases.
In 2010, a qualitative study undertaken by UNODC Pakistan revealed that drug use can have consequences on the physical well being of the spouses of the DUs/IDUs. Among the women interviewed, 26% reported being subject to physical violence and about 23% to sexual violence in the form of forced sex. Violence most often took place when their husbands needed money for drugs or when they were in a state of intoxication. Even though most of these women knew that condoms were an effective means of protection against STIs and HIV, only 17% reported regular condom use with their DU husbands. Forced sex can greatly increase the risk of HIV among women due to physical trauma and moreover, the inability to negotiate condom use or any means of contraception can further increase this risk.
UNODC Pakistan would like to use the services of a short-term consultant to carry out a research study to assess the implications of gender based violence on the health of female drug users and female spouses of male drug users. The consultant will coordinate closely with the Programme Officer- Drug Demand Reduction & HIV/AIDS who will ensure support in the deliverance of all assigned responsibilities.
The incumbent will work closely with the Programme Officer- Drug Demand Reduction & HIV/AIDS under the supervision of the HIV Adviser, UNODC Pakistan.
The Consultantwill undertake the following substantive duties and responsibilities:
- Prior to the field work , the consultant will be required to carry out a desk review of any existing literature on the subject particularly in the context of Pakistan;
- Draft the research protocols in conjunction with UNODC. The protocol should be based on the WHO protocol for research on gender based violence;
- The consultant will be the designated team leader for this assignment. He/she will lead a team at each site comprising of 3 Outreach workers- one male, two female;
- The consultant will be responsible for developing questionnaires for one-on-one /key informant interviews-with facilitation by the project team.;
5. The consultant will be responsible for providing a basic ‘Research skills’ training for all the research teams after questionnaire development. For this purpose he/she will collate all the necessary material required for the training. The scheme of the training will be based on:
a. Power point presentations;
b. Visuals aids;
c. Case studies and or Exercises/group work to involve participants.
- The consultant will be responsible for carrying out focus group discussions (FGDs) at each site;
- The consultant will be required to monitor the progress of data collection through regular on –site visits;
- Data analysis will be the carried out by the consultant upon return of the completed questionnaires;
- Draft the survey report in close coordination with UNODC Pakistan.
1. To identify the various pathways through which gender based violence can increase women’s risk to HIV/AIDS, STIs and other blood borne diseases.
2. Examine the relationship and possible negative outcomes of HIV status disclosure and the impact on access to service provision especially VCT.
- To analyse gender based violence as an impediment to sexual reproductive health : whether it limits a women's ability to negotiate condom use , practice safe sex and the general implications for her reproductive health.
- To evaluate whether the intersection between gender based violence and HIV/AIDS are based on unequal power relationships within the household .
5. Highlight existing gaps in capacity building on the issues surrounding GBV and HIV/AIDS with a view to develop specialized training programmes recommending remedial measures.
Qualification and Experience
· A professional, holding a Master’s degree in Sociology, Anthropology, Public Health or Epidemiology plus at least 6-7 years of relevant experience, particularly in research;
· Demonstrated knowledge of research and drafting reports;
· A sound understanding and knowledge of gender based violence / violence among women;
· Must demonstrate experience of conducting a reasonable amount of trainings , particularly on research skills;
· Excellent verbal and written communication skills in English. Knowledge of Urdu would be an advantage.
· Resilience and an ability to work under pressure.
· Excellent teamwork skills.
The assignment does not necessarily require the consultant to be based in Islamabad. However the completion of research work will require the consultant to be based in Islamabad with the COPAK team for a few days. Appropriate arrangements will be made to facilitate assessment missions to the sites, to be accompanied by concerned COPAK colleagues.
Planning and Implementation Arrangements
The Consultantwill work closely with the Programme Officer- Drug Demand Reduction & HIV/AIDS and the HIV Adviser and have documents approved by them prior to release.
Although the consultantis meant to take all views expressed into account, he/she will have to use his/her independent judgment in preparing documents.
Payment Schedule and Rate
The consultant will be issued a consultancy contract (Individual Contract) and paid on a monthly basis in accordance with United Nations rules and procedures. Payment scale will be determined by UNDP recommended rates for mid-level national consultants. Travel costs including transportation and Daily Subsistence Allowance (DSA) for travels will be paid by UNODC in accordance with United Nations rules and procedures.
Interested candidates are requested to submit a technical and financial proposal with application to email@example.com:
(i) Technical proposal should include the following:
1. Cover letter explaining interest for the position
2. Detailed P-11 form
3. Proposed methodology and work plan for the deliverables stated in the Terms of Reference
(ii) Financial Proposal should indicate lump sum amount with distribution as per deliverables and travel for consultancy services.
 HIV transmission from men to women in intimate partner relationships in Vietnam: A discussion paper, 2010.
 The social and economic impact of drug use on families: A qualitative insight, UNODC Pakistan, 2010
 UNODC will provide support in translating the complete and filled out questionnaires/forms on their return
The consultant will not carry out the face to face interviews with the spouses. The outreach workers will be trained on research skills to conduct those interviews. A timeline of 3 weeks will be given to each field team to complete and dispatch all the questionnaires.